ANEMIA HEMOLITIK AUTOIMUN ADALAH PDF

AIHA adalah suatu kelainan dimana terdapat anibodi tertentu pada tubuh kita yang menganggap eritrosit sebagai antigen non-selfnya, sehingga menyebabkan eritrosit mengalami lisis Etiologi Etiologi pasti dari penyakit hemolitik autoimun memang belum jelas kemungkinan terjadi kerena gangguan central tolerance dan gangguan pada proses pembatasan limfosit autoreaktif residual. Terkadang system kekebalan tubuh mengalami gangguan fungsi dan menghancurkan selnya sendiri karena keliru mengenalinya sebagain bahan asing reaksi autoimun. Serumnya direaksikan dengan sel — sel reagen. Autoantibody melapisi sel darah merah, yang kemudiandikenalinya sebagai benda asing dan dihancurkan oleh sel perusak dalam limpaatau kadang dalam hati dan sumsum tulang.

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A doctor will ask about symptoms and carry out a physical examination. They may then order some blood and urine tests to help with the diagnosis. Complete blood count The complete blood count CBC measures the different parts that make up the blood. It includes measuring the hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. Hemoglobin is a protein that carries oxygen throughout the body.

Hematocrit shows how much space red blood cells take up. Low levels of both can be a sign of anemia. Coombs tests These blood tests look for antibodies that may affect the red blood cells. Reticulocyte test This blood test measures the levels of reticulocytes, which are slightly immature red blood cells.

It can determine whether the bone marrow is creating red blood cells at a suitable rate. The range will be higher if the body has low hemoglobin levels due to bleeding or red cell destruction. High red blood cells production can be a sign of anemia.

Bilirubin test The liver produces bilirubin, a yellow-colored substance that is present in bile. A blood test can measure the amount of bilirubin in the blood. When blood cells die, hemoglobin enters the bloodstream. Hemoglobin, in turn, breaks down into bilirubin. This leads to jaundice , when the eyes and skin take on a yellowish color.

High bilirubin levels in the blood can be a sign of anemia, liver damage, or another disease. Haptoglobin test Haptoglobin is a protein that the liver produces. Within the body, it connects a specific type of hemoglobin within the blood. The amount of haptoglobin in the blood shows how fast red blood cells are being destroyed.

Agglutinins are antibodies that cause red blood cells to clump together. Cold agglutinins are active at cold temperatures, and warm agglutinins are active at normal body temperatures. Determining whether there are warm or cold agglutinins can sometimes help explain why the disorder is occurring.

Warm agglutinins can occur with: certain infections, such as mycoplasma pneumonia some medications, including penicillin Treatment options for AIHA depend on a number of factors. If the anemia is mild, it often passes without treatment. Between 70 and 80 percent of people need no treatment or minimal intervention. However, some people will need medication, surgery, or a blood transfusion. Medication A doctor may prescribe corticosteroids or cortisone-like drugs to weaken the immune response.

In severe cases, and if these drugs do not work, a doctor may prescribe other drugs that suppress the immune response, known as immunosuppressive therapy. The drugs help to prevent the immune system from attacking its own bone marrow.

Doing so allows the marrow stem cells to grow, and this can increase red blood counts. However, both cortisone and immunosuppressant drugs can have adverse effects. Surgery If drug treatment is not effective, a doctor may recommend surgery. The spleen is responsible for removing abnormal red blood cells from the bloodstream, including those with antibodies attached. Removing the spleen can enable the body to preserve those red blood cells.

This can help to prevent anemia. Blood transfusion If symptoms are severe and other options are not effective, the person may need a blood transfusion.

AIHA can occur in children. However, according to the University of Chicago, fewer than 0. The highest rates are in pre-school age children. When AIHA occurs in children, it is usually the result of a virus or infection. Often no treatment is necessary, and symptoms will pass without intervention. Children who need treatment will have the same treatment options as adults. Parents and caretakers should ensure that the child: follows a well-balanced diet gets plenty of rest and fluids plans activities in a way that will enable the child to manage their condition A doctor will discuss a specific treatment plan.

Prevention It is not possible to prevent some types of AIHA, but doctors can monitor people who have a viral infection or who use certain medications, to ensure that AIHA does not develop. Severe anemia can worsen many problems, such as heart and lung disease. People should contact a doctor if they experience any symptoms that may indicate AIHA.

If someone has AIHA, their doctor will work with them to help reduce symptoms and the chance of complications. Tips to reduce the risk of worsening symptoms or complications include : avoiding people with infections or who are sick washing hands and brushing teeth regularly to reduce the risk of oral and other infections having an annual flu shot People with cold AIHA should try to keep warm, as a cold environment can trigger the breakdown of red blood cells.

The condition usually lasts for a limited time. If it occurs during the teenage years, it can become a long-term condition. However, medical treatment can help reduce the impact.

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Anemia Hemolitik

Kelemahan atau ketidakmampuan melakukan aktivitas fisik Beberapa tanda dan gejala yang dapat tampak pada anemia hemolitik, bergantung dari penyebabnya, adalah: Warna urine yang gelap Kulit dan bagian putih pada mata sklera berwarna kekuningan Bunyi jantung yang tidak normal Peningkatan frekuensi denyut jantung Pembesaran hati Diagnosis Anemia Hemolitik Diagnosis dari anemia hemolitik dapat ditentukan berdasarkan wawancara medis yang mendetail, pemeriksaan fisik secara langsung, dan pemeriksaan penunjang tertentu. Saat melakukan pemeriksaan fisik, dokter dapat memeriksa adanya kulit yang tampak pucat atau kekuningan. Dokter juga dapat memeriksa perut untuk mengevaluasi adanya pembesaran hati atau limpa. Apabila dokter menduga terdapatnya anemia, dapat dilakukan pemeriksaan penunjang. Beberapa jenis pemeriksaan penunjang untuk menentukan diagnosis anemia hemolitik adalah: Bilirubin, yakni pemeriksaan untuk mengukur kadar sel darah merah yang dipecahkan oleh hati Hemoglobin, yang merupakan pemeriksaan untuk mengukur jumlah sel darah merah Tes fungsi hati Hitung retikulosit, yang merupakan pemeriksaan untuk mengukur jumlah sel darah merah yang diproduksi oleh tubuh Apabila dokter menduga tanda dan gejala yang dialami dapat berkaitan dengan anemia hemolitik intrinsik, juga dapat dilakukan pemeriksaan sampel darah menggunakan mikroskop untuk mengevaluasi bentuk dan ukuran dari sel darah merah. Pemeriksaan lain yang dapat dilakukan mencakup pemeriksaan urine untuk memeriksa adanya sel darah merah. Pada sebagian kasus, dokter juga dapat merekomendasikan untuk dilakukan aspirasi sumsum tulang atau biopsi.

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All about autoimmune hemolytic anemia

Peningkatan denyut jantung takikardia Jantung murmur Gejala anemia hemolitik dapat menyerupai masalah pada darah lainnya atau penyakit lain. Oleh karena itu, selalu berkonsultasi dengan dokter untuk diagnosis pasti. Diagnosis Anemia hemolitik dapat dicurigai keberadaannya dari anamnesis atau wawancara medis lengkap dan pemeriksaan fisik, seperti keluhan gejala yang telah disebutkan di atas, kulit dan bibir terlihat pucat, atau detak jantung cepat takikardia. Selain pemeriksaan fisik lengkap, dokter juga biasanya menganjurkan untuk dilakukannya tes diagnostik sebagai berikut: Tes darah. Tes ini mengukur hemoglobin dan hitung retikulosit dan akan menggambarkan berapa banyak sel darah merah baru yang sedang diproduksi.

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