The different book formats support each course with flexible learning and study tools. Companion Guides are portable desk references of the Cisco Networking Academy Program course material that students can use anytime, anywhere. Companion Guides are designed to reinforce online course material, helping students focus on important concepts and organize their study time for quizzes and exams. Labs and Study Guides, a format introduced in , provides students with a convenient, complete collection of course lab exercises PLUS supplemental exercises for each of the Networking Academy courses. The Study Guide sections provide learning exercises.
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Chapter 3: Application Layer Functionality and Protocols 55 Dynamic and static addressing both have their places in network designs. Many networks use both DHCP and static addressing. DHCP is used for general purpose hosts such as end user devices, and fixed addresses are used for network devices such as gateways, switches, servers and printers. Without DHCP, users have to manually input the IP address, subnet mask and other network settings in order to join the network.
Because the IP addresses are dynamic leased rather than static permanently assigned , addresses no longer in use are automatically returned to the pool for reallocation.
A client may choose to request an address that it had previously been allocated by the server. Assuming that the IP address requested by the client, or offered by the server, is still valid, the server would return a DHCP ACK message that acknowledges to the client the lease is finalized.
If the offer is no longer valid - perhaps due to a time-out or another client allocating the lease - then the selected server will respond with a DHCP NAK message Negative Acknowledgement. Using DHCP enables network administrators to easily reconfigure client IP addresses without having to manually make changes to the clients. Most Internet providers use DHCP to allocate addresses to their customers who do not require a static address.
IBM developed Server Message Block SMB in the late s to describe the structure of shared network resources, such as directories, files, printers, and serial ports.
It is a request-response protocol. Unlike the file sharing supported by FTP, clients establish a long term connection to servers.
Once the connection is established, the user of the client can access the resources on the server as if the resource is local to the client host.
SMB file-sharing and print services have become the mainstay of Microsoft networking. With the introduction of the Windows series of software, Microsoft changed the underlying structure for using SMB.
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