There is a body of comparative studies from which it may be possible to discover principles and generalities that transcend national boundaries and peculiar historical experiences. Comment The main distinction between administration in western countries and in underdeveloped countries does not lie in socio-cultural heritage but rather in the respective economic environments. Explain the meaning, significance and Models of Comparative Public Administration. Discuss the major conceptual approaches to the study of Comparative Public Administration and explain how Max Weber is considered to be the foremost mentor in the field. Describe the corresponding theoretical roots and attributes. Comment How did Fred W.
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It also specifies the procedures by which those rights and liabilities are enforced The above definition suffers from imperfections. It does not cover several aspects administrative law; it excludes the study of administrative processes and examination of various powers and functions of administrative authorities and it covers only one aspect of administrative law i.
Administrative Law deals with the structure towers a functions of the organs of administration; the limits of their powers; the procedure which the administrative authorities adopt in the exercise of their powers and the various modes of control including particularly judicial control over the different kinds of powers exercised by them.
Purpose of Administrative Law What sort of powers does the administration exercise What procedures do administrative authorities follow in the exercise of the powers of the administration What are the limits on the powers of the administration What are the ways in which the administration is kept within those limitations What remedies are available for the individual against the illegal actions of administrators.
Features It subordinates the common law rights of personnel freedom and private property to the conception of social or common goods. It lays down certain flexible standards to be applied to cases instead of cut and dried legal rules Interpretation duplication is left to the administrative tribunals especially constituted for the purpose places public authorities in an advantageous position over the private individuals.
It is a law in the making. Rule of Law Vs Administrative Law Features of Rule of Law Rule of Law implies equality before law None shall be detained unless his guilt has been established in a duly constituted court of law and in accordance with a duly constituted procedure. Rules of constitution far from being the source of the rights of the individuals themselves the results of those rights as they have been upheld in courts of law.
For fundamental rights, an individual does not look to the constitutional rules as to the courts of law. People should not take law into their hands. The burden of rule of law is the liberty of the individual. In France, parallel to the Ordinary courts of Law, there were Administrative Courts; charged with wing controversies mainly involving claims-against the State, and they apply a body of law separate and distinct from that of the Civil Law.
Dicey: In England, everybody is subject to the same law and same set of law courts. Napoleon Bonaparte was the founder of the Droit Administration. Features The power of administration to act suo moto and to impose directly on the subject the duty to obey its decision the power of administration to take decisions and to execute them suo moto may be exercised only within the ambit of law which protects individual liberties against administrative arbitrariness the existence of a specialized administrative jurisdiction Government agency action can include rulemaking, adjudication, or the enforcement of a specific regulatory agenda.
Administrative law is considered a branch of public law. As a body of law, administrative law deals with the decision-making of administrative units of government e. Administrative law expanded greatly during the twentieth century, as legislative bodies world-wide created more government agencies to regulate the increasingly complex social, economic and political spheres of human interaction.
Dicey opposed administrative law for the following reasons. Functions of Administrative Law It is accepted as a necessary evil of all democratic countries where welfare schemes for the general public are planned. It primarily consists in finding the ways in which administration could be kept within a limit, so that the discretionary powers of administrative authorities could not become arbitrary powers.
Supplies a solution to the problem of reconciling freedom and justice of the private citizen with the necessities of a modern government charged with the promotion of social and economic policies. Provides for fair administrative procedure to minimize arbitrariness on the part of administration. There are two specific provisions in the Rules of Procedure, which are concerned with delegated legislation.
Rule 88 off the Rules of Procedure provides that a Bill involving proposals for the delegation of legislative power shall be accompanied by a memorandum explaining such proposals and drawing attention to their scope and stating whether they are of normal of exceptional character. There has been lack of uniformity in the provisions of Acts delegating legislative powers. The following four types of provisions exists in the visions Acts: The Central Government is empowered to make rules for the purposes of giving effect to the provisions of an Act by notification in the official Gazette.
The rules made by the Central Government are subject to such modifications as Parliament may make after they are laid on the table. The rules made under an Act are required to be laid on the table of the House for a specified period before of their final publication. A large number of its recommendations have been accepted. Its recommendation, made in its seventh Report, was given statutory shape in the General Clauses Act, passed early in , providing that all instruments of delegated legislation should be laid before Parliament and that the State Legislatures should make similar laws, and that there was no need to repeat the following formula m every Act authorising delegated legislation.
Every rule made under this section shall be laid as soon as may be after it is made, before each House of Parliament, while it is in session, for a total period of thirty days which may be comprised in one session or in two successive sessions and if, before the expiry of the session in which it is so laid or the session immediately following both Houses agree in making any modification in the rules or both Houses agree that the rule should not be made, the rule shall thereafter have effect only in such modified form or be of no effect, as the case may be; so however, that any such modification annulment shall be without prejudice to the validity of anything previously done under that rule.
The Committee is doing a really fine job; its members are in the words of G. By denouncing certain features of delegated legislation the Committee is gradually setting a norm to which delegated legislation should scrupulously conform. Conclusion Administrative law is a negation of rule of law; discretionary powers are given to civil servants to advantage of few sections. Administrators get a privileged status against ordinary citizens.
Instead of treating administrative law as a limitation, ways and means should be found to overcome these limitations -and achievements objectives.
Increase in social conscious among the citizens is a welcome step in this direction. The solution to problems of administrative law lies in effective implementation of rule of law and effective reduction in discretionary power of officials.
A. V. Dicey
Possible change in constitution of parliamentary sovereign Parliament Act, The book was based on lectures delivered by me as Vinerian Professor of English Law. The lectures were given and the book written with the sole object of explaining and illustrating three leading characteristics in the existing constitution of England; they are now generally designated as the Sovereignty of Parliament, the Rule of Law, and the Conventions of the Constitution. The book, therefore, dealt with the main features of our constitution as it stood in , that is thirty years ago.
UPSC: Administrative Law, Dicey and Administrative Law, Administrative Tribunals
It also specifies the procedures by which those rights and liabilities are enforced The above definition suffers from imperfections. It does not cover several aspects administrative law; it excludes the study of administrative processes and examination of various powers and functions of administrative authorities and it covers only one aspect of administrative law i. Administrative Law deals with the structure towers a functions of the organs of administration; the limits of their powers; the procedure which the administrative authorities adopt in the exercise of their powers and the various modes of control including particularly judicial control over the different kinds of powers exercised by them. For Details Click Here Purpose of Administrative Law What sort of powers does the administration exercise What procedures do administrative authorities follow in the exercise of the powers of the administration What are the limits on the powers of the administration What are the ways in which the administration is kept within those limitations What remedies are available for the individual against the illegal actions of administrators. Features It subordinates the common law rights of personnel freedom and private property to the conception of social or common goods.
Biography[ edit ] Dicey was born on 4 February His elder brother was Edward James Stephen Dicey. In he won a fellowship at Trinity College, Oxford , which he forfeited upon his marriage in He was called to the bar by the Inner Temple in , subscribed to the Jamaica Committee around , and was appointed to the Vinerian Chair of English Law at Oxford in , a post he held until He argued that the British Parliament was "an absolutely sovereign legislature" with the "right to make or unmake any law". In the book, he defined the term constitutional law as including "all rules which directly or indirectly affect the distribution or the exercise of the sovereign power in the state".