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It is usually easy to measure open-circuit voltage and shortedload current. By using a load resistor and measuring voltage under load, it is easy to calculate the Thevenin or Norton resistance. An answer is given to job interview questions only when the text has insufficient information. It depends on how accurate your calculations need to be.
If an accuracy of 1 percent is adequate, you should include the source resistance whenever it is greater than 1 percent of the load resistance. Measure the open-load voltage to get the Thevenin voltage VTH. To get the Thevenin resistance, reduce all sources to zero and measure the resistance between the AB terminals to get RTH.
If this is not possible, measure the voltage VL across a load resistor and calculate the load current IL. The load must be greater than the internal resistance in order for the voltage source to be considered stiff. The expression cold-cranking amperes refers to the amount of current a car battery can deliver in freezing weather when it is needed most.
What limits actual current is the Thevenin resistance caused by chemical and physical parameters inside the battery, not to mention the quality of the connections outside. It means that the load resistance is not large compared to the Thevenin resistance, so that a large load current exists.
Because troubles usually produce large changes in voltage and current, so that the ideal approximation is adequate for most troubles.
You should infer nothing from a reading that is only 5 percent from the ideal value. Actual circuit troubles will usually cause large changes in circuit voltages. Small changes can result from component variations that are still within the allowable tolerance. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Download: Schaum Electric Circuits Solution Manual.pdf
Electric Circuits 10th eds - Instructor's Solutions Manual James W. Nilsson and Susan A. Riedel