Open in a separate window 9. Phytoconstituents of E. Many compounds have been isolated from the plant, E. Tanna et al. The presence of minerals like iron, potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, silica, phosphate, chloride, sulphate and carbonate were estimated in the qualitative analysis of ash.

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Open in a separate window 9. Phytoconstituents of E. Many compounds have been isolated from the plant, E. Tanna et al. The presence of minerals like iron, potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, silica, phosphate, chloride, sulphate and carbonate were estimated in the qualitative analysis of ash. Natarajan and Prasad reported the presence of five alkaloids, two sterols and volatile oil [7]. Betulin, a triterpene sapogenin was also isolated by earlier workers [16].

Monoterpene alkaloids like enicoflavin, gentiocrucine and seven different flavonoids were isolated from the alcoholic extract and the structures were identified as apigenin, genkwanin, isovitexin, swertisin, saponarin, 5-o glucosylswertisin and 5-o glucosylisoswertisin were also isolated by Goshal et al [17].

The presence of catechins, saponins, steroids, sapogenin, triterpenoids, flavonoids and xanthones and a new flavone C-glucoside named as Verticilliside was isolated for the first time this species was reported by Jahan et al [18]. Swertiamarin compound was isolated from E. Six phenolic acids like vanillic acid, syringic acid, p-hydroxy benzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid were also found by Desai et al [20]. Methanol extract of E.

Swertiamarin is a representative constituent of many crude drugs, which are marketed in Japan and other countries and these crude drugs are normally evaluated by their high swertiamarin content [22] , [23].

Pharmacological properties of E. Antimicrobial activity of E. The chloroform extract shows pronounced activity against Aspergillus niger A. The ethyl acetate extract shows slight activity against A. The ethanol extract shows pronounced activity against A. Praveena et al. Among that methanolic and ethyl acetate extract of E. Antihelminthic activity of E. Petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts of aerial parts of E. Five different concentrations of each extracts were used in this antihelminthic activity, in which the time of paralysis and death of the worm were determined.

The results indicated that an ethanolic extract of E. Antinociceptive effect of E. Iridoids present in a wide variety of medicinal plants possess a large number of medicinal properties. In the study by Jaishree V, in vivo anti-nociceptive activity of swertiamarin isolated from E. The percent protection observed after 45 min was A significant increase in the tail withdrawal reflex was observed for the swertiamarin treatment at both the doses with percent protections of and , respectively.

In both these methods, swertiamarin showed potent activity than standard paracetamol. These results proved that swertiamarin from E.

Antioxidant activity of E. Thirumalai et al. After administration of aqueous leaf extract of E. He reports that an aqueous leaf extract of E. Clinically the usages of aminoglycosidic antibiotics were limited since it induces the nephrotoxicity. Oxidative stress is the main reason for this complication. Mukundray et al. Gentamicin treated animals showed high oxidative stress in mitochondrial as well as post-mitochondrial fractions of renal tissues as evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation levels, activities of antioxidant enzymes, SOD and GPx.

Treatment with E. Antiulcer and anti-inflammatory activity of E. The extract was administered to the overnight fasted rats, one hour prior to aspirin or alcohol or pyloric ligation challenge. The ulcer index, tissue GSH levels and lipid peroxidation levels in all the models of ulcers and the volume of gastric secretion, acidity and pH were estimated in the pyloric ligation model of ulcers.

Pre-treatment with the aqueous extract of E. The prior administration of the aqueous extract also reduces the total acidity, free acidity, volume of gastric secretion and elevated the gastric pH.

In addition, it was also observed that the aqueous extract inhibits the serum albumin denaturation in a dose-dependent manner. It was reported that the methanolic extract of E.

And its anti-inflammatory activity may be attributed to the antioxidant potential. Antitumour activity of E. A significant enhancement of mean survival time of methanolic extract of E.

Treating with methanolic extract of E. When these methanolic extract of E. After 14 days of inoculation, methanolic extract of E. Hepatoprotective activity of E. The histological evaluation and the level of various biochemical parameters in circulation indicated the level of hepatic injury.

Highly reactive trichloro free radical formation, which attacks polyunsaturated fatty acids of the endoplasmic reticulum, is responsible for the hepatotoxicity of paracetamol.

It produces hepatotoxicity by altering liver microsomal membranes in experimental animals. The study by Gite et al. The present investigation indicates that the ethanolic extract of E. These attributes provide the rationale for the use of E.

Hepatomodulatory activity of E. The rats subjected only CCl4 with olive oil, showed remarkable oxidative stress induced liver injury. Supplementation of E. Further, the hepatic marker levels aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase, lactate dehydrogenase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, total bilirubin, total protein and albumin in serum were also restored to normal level dose-dependently after the supplementation of E.

Gupta et al. Antihyperlipidaemic activity of E. A component of plant enhances cholesterol acyltransferase by esterification of free cholesterol in the HDL [33]. A new study demonstrates a new property of swertiamarin as a potent lipid lowering agent when compared to atorvastatin and it may also contributes cardioprotective and antiatheroscleroticrole effects. The swertiamarin and atorvastatin when orally fed also lowered the total serum cholesterol and triglycerides [34].

Hypolipidaemic and antioxidant effects were evaluated by administrating an aqueous extract of E. The treatment with this extract decreases the activities of erythrocyte CAT, SOD and LPO levels, with an increase in reduced glutathione levels, liver and kidney cholesterol levels were also decreased in E. Hypoglycemic activity of E. A significant increase in blood glucose, TBARS and hydroperoxides in liver, kidney and pancreas, with an decreased concentration of reduced glutathione and suppressed activities of SOD, CAT and GPx were also observed in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

Treating diabetic rats with oral administration of aqueous E. The effectiveness of E. Hence it can be tried in clinical purpose to overcome these complications.

Vishwakarma et al. Treatment of diabetic rats with STZ significantly produced the carnial signs of diabetes-mellitus like weight loss, polyuria and polydipsia, increased the fasting blood glucose level and AUC glucose associated with decrease in insulin level.

Treatment of diabetic rats with hot aqueous extract of E. TLC finger-print profiles were established for the aqueous extract using high performance thin layer chromatography. Swertiamarin was found to be a major component in hot extract of E. The result suggested that E. Antihyperinsulinemic activity of E. Aqueous extracts of Aegle marmelos and E. Treated groups received fructose diet plus aqueous extracts A.

Body weight, serum glucose, insulin, C-reactive protein and triglycerides levels were estimated after treating with an extract. Gohil et al. Administration of aqueous extracts of A. Diabteic neuropathy activity of E. The protective effects of E. Nociceptive responses were compared by formalin and tail flick in hot immersion test in both diabetic and non diabetic rats.

Treating with E. This study provides an experimental evidence for the preventive effect of E. Hence, E. An active herbal compound SGL-1 was isolated and purified from extract of E. Morphological, molecular and immunological characterization of newly generated islet like cellular aggregates proved them differentiated and positive for islet hormones.

This preliminary data does offer exciting possibility of alternate source for increasing islet mass which can be used for the treatment of diabetic patients. Conclusions This review furnishes the presence of several phytochemical components in E. The recent evidences shows an effective role of swertiamarin, a phytochemical compound derived from E.


Enicostema axillare

East Africa. Raynal Calyx lobes triangular or lanceolate, apex acute, margin narrowly scarious: Leaf apex rounded or occasionally subacute but not acuminate , mucronate; capsule c. Asia, Africa. Leaf blade gradually tapering to an acuminate apex; capsule c. Small herbaceous plant found in Ahmednagar dist.



Similar results of Concentration MIC this plant [9] on chloroform, ethyl acetate and The MIC was also evaluated axiloare the hydro alcoholic extracts was found as effective antibacterial activity of more effective on E. File:A image of Enicostemma axillare. Wound swabs obtained from ten injured patients at Government hospital, led to the isolation of bacteria using standard methods, the microorganisms were isolated. Isolation of Wound Isolates Wound swabs were obtained at unit of wound The medicinal value of drug plants is due to patients from Government hospital, the presence of some chemical substances in Mannargudi, Tamilnadu. The detect the medical properties of the plant. Modes of action at the dose levels tested.

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