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Huzun is therefore,like other bi-polar narcotic addictives, a sought-after state, and it is the absence, not the presence, of huzun that causes the sufferer distress in withdrawal. The first leader Osman, from whose name the word Ottoman derives, and his successors began to dominate and unite the various Turkic tribes of Anatolia, the land of modern-day Turkey and consolidate them under a centralized Turkic and Islamic state.

After a brief setback from their defeat by Timur, a new young Sultan, Mehmet the Conqueror thrust the Ottomans onto the world stage by successfully conquering Constantinople, ending the Byzantine Empire. Afterwards, under Selim and Suleiman the Magnificant the Empire was extended to include Egypt and North Africa, the European Balkans up to the approaches to Vienna, and finally Baghdad and Iraq, resulting in the transfer of the Caliphate, nominal dominion of all Muslims, to Constantinople the new Ottoman capital.

By the Ottoman Empire had become a superpower, far larger than any existing European state in both territory and population, which approached millions, compared to only 5 million in England and 10 million in France. However, by the Law of Unintended Consequences the Ottomans sewed also the first seeds of their own demise, as their monopoly of the Far East trade with China and India resulting from their capture of Constantinople impelled Columbus on his voyage to China which led to the discovery of the Americas, the installation of Spain as the first global Empire and then to the growth of the rival global empires of France and Britain and Russia, the allies who would in their victory over the Ottomans and their German allies in World War I dismantle the Ottoman Empire forever.

In the meantime, however, several centuries of Ottoman reign would afford ample opportunity for the development of a rich literature, part of the common heritage of the world. Her intellectual family provided her with illustrious private tutors and access to the copious family library. She proved to have an inborn talent for poetry, and came to excel in the ghazal genre of love poetry. In addition, like the later grande dames of the Paris "salons" she occupied at striking figure in intellectual, governmental and artistic circles.

Her ghazals were an expression of her amatory experience and a capacity for Platonic spiritualized love in the Sufi tradition. Many of her love poems were inspired by and dedicated to Iskender Celbi, the son of the world-renown Ottoman architect Mimar Sinan Pasha.

Sinan was celebrated as the "Turkish Michelangelo" as he built or designed the great mosques that made such a striking contribution ot the world architectural heritage, such as the Suleiman and Sultan Ahmet Grand Mosques which still dominate the skylines of Istanbul and many other Muslim cities.

Our first impression of Islamic architecture, a domed mosque flanked by four towering and pointed minarets, was a form created by Sinan. It can be said that he worked in the same spirit of the Rennaisance as did Michangelo and Da Vinci in that he borrowed the domed design of the Byzantine Christian Hagia Sophia from the past and reworked it in an Islamic format, creating the Islamic grand style of architecture we still celebrate in the grand mosques and such structures as the Taj Mahal in India.

In fact he was a close contemporary of Michelangelo and Da Vinci, actually competing with Da Vinci in both submitting designs for a bridge across the Golden Horn in an international competition sponsored by the Sultan. Both Sinan and Michelangelo changed the face of architecture for centuries in their respective domains of influence and thus the term "The Turkish Michelangelo" is no exaggeration.

Both the Western masters of the Renaissance and the Muslim masters of the earlier Islamic Golden Age which preserved so much of the Greek and Roman heritage, saw and acheived so much each in their times, because, as Newton stated, "they stood on the shoulders of giants," i. He traveled to every corner of the Ottoman Empire, from the Balkan domains neighboring Vienna to modern Saudi Arabia, into North Africa and through Egypt southwards into Africa, and then beyond the Empire into Russia and beyond.

While not as extensive as the travels of Ibn Battuta or Marco Polo, his travels were extraordinary and his writing of them masterful. A countess and cousin to the great novelist Henry Fielding, she took advantage of her wealth and social position to educate herself to become a notable classical scholar, translator and poet, following in the footsteps of other aristocratic women of the French salons such as Madame de Sevigne.

Like the "precieuses" or intellectual court ladies of the French salons she wrote and circulated poetry to closer friends and aristocratic acquaintances, in her social class it being considered ungenteel and unladylike to publish for the masses, and her writings became generally known only after her death. She proved herself, however, unlike the "ladies of sentiment" of the Continent, to be more interested in satire, wit and sex.

Like Aphra Behn before her she was the object of scandal and admiration and dabbled in journalism, producing an edition of "The Spectator" for her friends Addison and Steele. She was a personal friend of Alexander Pope with whom she exchanged letters and poetry until they became enemies after he satirized her in his famous poem "Epistle II: To a Lady.

Upon her return ot England she helped to popularize the Turkish practice of inoculation against smallpox, which was more accepted there than in Europe, publically inoculating her own two children to help overcome public fears of the vaccination process. In , at the age of fifty, she broke off her friendship with Alexander Pope and ran off to Italy with a bisexual writer, Francesco Algarotti, less than half her age and continued relations with him for the next twenty years until his death, though using her wealth to live in expatriate exile independently of both her lover and her husband.

From Italy she wrote about her alienation as a foreigner and as a woman from all the worlds she had tried to inhabit. Returning to England only in the final year of her life at seventy-three her final words were: "It has all been most interesting. Like most Islamic poets, he wrote in several languages, his native Turkish, Arabic and the Persian language used in royal and scholarly circles, and wrote extensive prose works on philosophy, religious issues and literary criticism in addition to his poetry.

His themes focus on the human emotions, mystic love, wisdom, Sufi mysticism and also court pangyrics celebrating the Sultan and the Grand Vizir. Though Turkish he spent almost all of his life in Iraq as it became a part of the Ottoman Empire. Prevented from marrying by her father who objectet to his poverty and scandalously lunatic behavious towards his beloved, he in desperation took up the life of a wanderer writing poems about her and observing her from afar.

Majnun also dies of grief on her grave after inscribing lyrics of undying love on the neighboring rocks. Buried together, two trees grow on their graves whose trunks and branches are inseperably fused. His own life followed a similar path of love, when as a young scholar he fell in love with the daughter of his mentor, Rahmat Allah. His poem "At the Gathering of Desire" is addressed to "Saki," meaning a court cup-bearer or beloved, a name later used by Edwardian British short story master H.

It features one major character, Mohammad ala Rushdie who is a Sufi novice in the Mevlevi order who is also a modern social activists in the Campaign for a United Nations Parliamentary Assembly for global democracy.

He in the course of the novel is taken hostage by terrorists and meets the Supreme Leader of Iran, urging him to "Open the Gates of Ijtihad" or reinvigorate Islamic tradition with creative reasoning and openness rather than binding it to blind precedent and unthinking tradition. Robert Sheppard.


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