Biography Johann Friedrich Herbart Facts Johann Friedrich Herbart was a Ger man philosopher-psychologist and educator, noted for his contributions in laying the foundations of scientific study of education. Johann Friedrich Herbart was born on May 4, , in Oldenburg, the son of the state councilor for Oldenburg. He attended the University of Jena In Switzerland he met Johann Pestalozzi and visited his school at Burgdorf. He began to seek a sound philosophical base upon which to rest his educational theories.
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Johann Herbart — Career, Contribution German philosopher Johann Friedrich Herbart is the founder of the pedagogical theory that bears his name, which eventually laid the groundwork for teacher education as a university enterprise in the United States and elsewhere. Herbart was born in Oldenburg, Germany, the only child of a gifted and strong-willed mother and a father whose attention was devoted to his legal practice.
Herbart was tutored at home until he entered the gymnasium at the age of twelve, from which he went on as valedictorian to the University of Jena at a time when such stellar German intellectuals as Johann Gottfried Herder, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, and Friedrich von Schiller were associated with that institution. Career In and almost against his will Herbart was persuaded by his mother to accept a position as tutor to the sons of the regional governor of Interlaken in Switzerland.
During his three years of work with these three very different boys, aged fourteen, ten, and eight when their relationship began, Herbart confronted in earnest the problems of teaching children, reporting monthly to their father on his methods and the results achieved.
He remained there as a lecturer in both philosophy and pedagogy until he received an appointment as professor of philosophy in He also published on metaphysics and psychology. In the midst of work in metaphysics and psychology he also organized a pedagogical seminar for advanced students, attached to a demonstration school in which he and his students attempted to implement his pedagogical ideas, which were then critiqued and revised through the seminar discussions.
This seminar, widely imitated by his later disciplines in Germany and elsewhere, was a first step toward trying to approach educational work scientifically. He gave his last lecture two days before he died of a stroke on August 14, Contribution The legacy of Herbart to education was mediated through two major German disciples, Karl Volkmar Stoy and Tuiskon Ziller, who sought to implement his theories with varying degrees of alteration.
In he was appointed professor at the university, then he moved in to the University of Heidelberg, establishing at nearby Bielitz a normal school based upon Herbartian principles. He returned to Jena in and established there the pedagogical seminar that would be taken over upon his death in by Wilhelm Rein, and brought to international renown by the end of the nineteenth century both for its practices and for its incorporation of teacher education into the university.
It was there that the majority of Herbartians from other countries, including the United States, developed their ideas. Rein had studied with the second major disciple of Herbart, Ziller, who had pursued a career in law, being appointed a lecturer at the University of Leipzig in Scholarship on both schools continues, centered at the University of Jena since its international conference, Der Herbartianismus: die vergessene Wissenschaftsgeschichte Herbartianism: the forgotten history of a science , in The investigation of, or even attention to, the fine points of Herbartian theory, was notably lacking in American Herbartianism, although the central ideas remained intact.
First and foremost was the development of moral character as the central aim of education. The essential unity of the ideas present in the mind is reflected in the theory of concentration as a principle for organizing the curriculum, which in relating several subjects to one another in the course of instruction also nurtures the many-faceted interest that is essential to full intellectual and thus spiritual development. Ziller added to these basic ideas the notion of the cultural-historical epochs as a curriculum principle that responds to the recapitulation in the individual of the psychic and cultural development of his group.
Rein and others developed a full eight-year course of study built upon this principle, which was translated and adapted to American use by Charles A. McMurry, one of the major disseminators of Herbartianism in the United States and a student with Rein.
De Garmo also provided for American readers the most thorough survey of the German Herbartians and Herbartian concepts in his Herbart and the Herbartians, published in It joined a substantial number of translations of work by Herbart and various German Herbartians made available in the s. American Herbartianism enjoyed a brief burst of national attention in the s because of attempts by U. Commissioner of Education William Torrey Harris to stop its spread and the formation of the National Herbart Society in in response to those efforts.
Within seven years the National Herbart Society had become the National Society for the Study of Education and its yearbooks had lost any obvious association with Herbartianism. Within that period at least eight universities were offering heavily Herbartian programs, and the demand for American Herbartian texts, particularly those of Charles McMurry, lasted until nearly Integrated curriculum, elementary school history teaching, and constructivist learning theory are part of the contemporary legacy of Herbartianism.
The system includes logic, metaphysics, and aesthetics as coordinate elements. He rejected all concepts of separate mental faculties, postulating instead that all mental phenomena result from interaction of elementary ideas. Herbart believed that educational methods and systems should be based on psychology and ethics: psychology to furnish necessary knowledge of the mind and ethics to be used as a basis for determining the social ends of education. Herbart was the first scientist to distinguish instructional process from subject matter. According to Herbart, interest develops when already strong and vivid ideas are hospitable towards new ones, thus past associations motivate apperception of current ones.
Johann Friedrich Herbart (1776-1841)
His aims in this respect are expressed by the title of his textbook—Psychologie als Wissenschaft neu gegrundet auf Erfahrung, Metaphysik, und Mathematik, 2 vol. The study of their interactions gave rise to a statics and dynamics of the mind, to be expressed in mathematical formulas like those of Newtonian mechanics. On this basis Herbart developed a theory of education as a branch of applied psychology. This step is presumed possible only if the student immediately applies the new idea, making it his own. Get exclusive access to content from our First Edition with your subscription.
Johann Friedrich Herbart Facts
Biographical sketch Herbart was born on May 4, , in Oldenburg. His early education emphasized music, which would be reflected in his later writings. There he met Fichte, becoming a member of his inner circle. Already by , however, Herbart took a critical stance towards the Wissenschaftslehre.