Biography[ edit ] The name Kapila appears in many texts, and it is likely that these names refer to different people. While he pre-dates Buddha , it is unclear which century he lived in, with some suggesting 6th-century BCE. In Vedic texts[ edit ] The Rigveda X. Kapila and hermits then went to Kapilasangama, a holy place where rivers meet. The Padma Purana and Skanda Purana conclusively call him Vishnu himself who descended on earth to disseminate true knowledge. Bhagavata Purana calls him Vedagarbha Vishnu.
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Sage Kapila is traditionally considered as the founder of the Samkhya school, although no historical verification is possible. It is regarded as one of the oldest philosophical systems in India.
Samkhya was one of the six orthodox systems astika, those systems that recognize vedic authority of Hindu philosophy. This text in karika 70 identifies Sankhya as a Tantra and its philosophy was one of the main influences both on the rise of the Tantras as a body of literature, as well as Tantra sadhana. There are no purely Sankhya schools existing today in Hinduism, but its influence is felt in the Yoga and Vedanta schools.
Samkhya is an enumerationist philosophy that is strongly dualist. Prakriti further bifurcates into animate and inanimate realms. On the other hand, Purusha separates out into countless Jivas or individual units of consciousness as souls which fuse into the mind and body of the animate branch of Prakriti. There are differences between Sankhya and Western forms of dualism. In the West, the fundamental distinction is between mind and body. In Samkhya, however, it is between the self as Purusha and matter Prakriti.
According to a modern scholar Surendranath Dasgupta, the doctrine of the earliest school of Samkhya is found in an ancient Indian medical treatise, Charaka Samhita. Epistemology According to the Sankhya school, all knowledge is possible through three pramanas means of valid knowledge - 1. Pratyaksha or Drishtam - direct sense perception, 2. Anumana - logical inference and 3. Sabda or Aptavacana - verbal testimony. Sankhya cites two kinds of perceptions: Indeterminate nirvikalpa perceptions and determinate savikalpa perceptions.
Indeterminate perceptions are merely impressions without understanding or knowledge. They reveal no knowledge of the form or the name of the object. There is only external awareness about an object. There is cognition of the object, but no discriminative recognition. There is a lot of data from sensory perception, but there is little or no understanding of the inputs. Hence they can be neither differentiated nor labeled.
Most of them are indeterminate perceptions. Determinate perceptions are the mature state of perceptions which have been processed and differentiated appropriately.
Once the sensations have been processed, categorized, and interpreted properly, they become determinate perceptions. They can lead to identification and also generate knowledge.
Metaphysics Ontology Broadly, the Samkhya system classifies all objects as falling into one of the two categories: Purusha and Prakriti. It is absolute, independent, free, imperceptible, unknowable, above any experience and beyond any words or explanation. Purusha is neither produced nor does it produce.
Prakriti Prakriti is the first cause of the universe—of everything except the Purusha, which is uncaused, and accounts for whatever is physical, both matter and force. Since it is the first principle tattva of the universe, it is called the Pradhana, but, as it is the unconscious and unintelligent principle, it is also called the Jada. It is composed of three essential characteristics trigunas. All physical events are considered to be manifestations of the evolution of Prakriti, or primal nature from which all physical bodies are derived.
Each sentient being is a Purusha, and is limitless and unrestricted by its physical body. Samsaara or bondage arises when the Purusha does not have the discriminate knowledge and so is misled as to its own identity, confusing itself with the physical body, which is actually an evolute of Prakriti. The spirit is liberated when the discriminate knowledge of the difference between conscious Purusha and unconscious Prakriti is realized.
It is also argued in this text that the existence of Ishvara cannot be proved and hence cannot be admitted to exist and an unchanging Ishvara as the cause cannot be the source of a changing world as the effect. Almost all modern scholars are of view that the concept of Ishvara was incorporated into the nirishvara atheistic Samkhya viewpoint only after it became associated with the Yoga, the Pasupata and the Bhagavata schools of philosophy.
While the Prakriti is a single entity, the Samkhya admits a plurality of the Purushas. Unintelligent, unmanifest, uncaused, ever-active, imperceptible and eternal Prakriti is alone the final source of the world of objects which is implicitly and potentially contained in its bosom.
The Purusha is considered as the intelligent principle, a passive enjoyer bhokta and the Prakriti is the enjoyed bhogya. Samkhya believes that the Purusha cannot be regarded as the source of inanimate world, because an intelligent principle cannot transform itself into the unintelligent world. It is a pluralistic spiritualism, atheistic realism and uncompromising dualism. Theory of Existence The Sankhya system is based on Satkaryavada.
According to Satkaryavada, the effect pre-exists in the cause. Cause and effect are seen as different temporal aspects of the same thing - the effect lies latent in the cause which in turn seeds the next effect. More specifically, Sankhya system follows the Prakriti-Parinama Vada. Parinama denotes that the effect is a real transformation of the cause.
The Sankhya system is therefore an exponent of an evolutionary theory of matter beginning with primordial matter. In evolution, Prakriti is transformed and differentiated into multiplicity of objects. Evolution is followed by dissolution. In dissolution the physical existence, all the worldly objects mingle back into Prakriti, which now remains as the undifferentiated, primordial substance.
This is how the cycles of evolution and dissolution follow each other. It is pure potentiality that evolves itself successively into twenty four tattvas or principles.
All macrocosmic and microcosmic creation uses these templates. It is also a state of equilibrium amongst the Three Gunas. Mahat is also considered to be the principle responsible for the rise of buddhi or intelligence in living beings.
It is responsible for the self-sense in living beings. They are the subtle form of Panch Mahabhutas which result from grossification or Panchikaran of the Tanmatras. Each of these Tanmatras are made of all three Gunas. They evolve from the rajas aspect of Ahamkara. They evolve from the "tamas" aspect of the "Ahamkara". This is the revealed aspect of the physical universe. The evolution of primal nature is also considered to be purposeful - Prakrti evolves for the spirit in bondage.
The spirit who is always free is only a witness to the evolution, even though due to the absence of discriminate knowledge, he misidentifies himself with Purusha body. The evolution obeys causality relationships, with primal Nature itself being the material cause of all physical creation.
The cause and effect theory of Sankhya is called Satkaarya-vaada theory of existent causes , and holds that nothing can really be created from or destroyed into nothingness - all evolution is simply the transformation of primal Nature from one form to another.
The evolution of matter occurs when the relative strengths of the attributes change. The evolution ceases when the spirit realizes that it is distinct from primal Nature and thus cannot evolve. This destroys the purpose of evolution, thus stopping Prakrti from evolving for Purusha. The evolution of forms at the basis of Sankhya is quite remarkable. The strands of Sankhyan thought can be traced back to the Vedic speculation of creation. It is also frequently mentioned in the Mahabharata and Yogavasishta.
Moksha Like other major systems of Indian philosophy, Sankhya regards ignorance as the root cause of bondage and suffering Samsara. According to Sankhya, the Purusha is eternal, pure consciousness.
Due to ignorance, it identifies itself with the physical body and its constituents - Manas, Ahamkara and Mahat, which are products of Prakriti. Once it becomes free of this false identification and the material bonds, Moksha ensues. Views of what happens to the soul after liberation vary tremendously, as the Sankhya view is used by many different Hindu sects and is rarely practiced alone.
SANKHYA DARSHAN KAPIL MUNI PDF
Sage Kapila is traditionally considered as the founder of the Samkhya school, although no historical verification is possible. It is regarded as one of the oldest philosophical systems in India. Samkhya was one of the six orthodox systems astika, those systems that recognize vedic authority of Hindu philosophy. This text in karika 70 identifies Sankhya as a Tantra and its philosophy was one of the main influences both on the rise of the Tantras as a body of literature, as well as Tantra sadhana. There are no purely Sankhya schools existing today in Hinduism, but its influence is felt in the Yoga and Vedanta schools. Samkhya is an enumerationist philosophy that is strongly dualist. Prakriti further bifurcates into animate and inanimate realms.
Teachings of Lord Kapila Free PDF Download
Send as free online greeting card. Further in the khilas of the Rgveda, one Kapila is mentioned along with some other sages. Essays On Indo-Aryan Mythology. Kapila — Wikipedia Stories you may want to read. As Buddhist art often depicts Vedic deities, one can find art of both Narayana and Kapila as kings within a Buddhist temple, along with statues of Buddhist figures such as Amitabha, Maitreya, and Vairocana.